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[Translate to french:] [Translate to canadian english:] [] Fault Current Monitoring in Electrical Installations

Fault Current Monitoring in Electrical Installations

Foundations, Applications and Methods of Measuring Residual Current in AC and DC Systems, with Residual Current Monitors (RCMs) according to IEC 62020 and other International Standards.

Wolfgang Hofheinz

Edition 2004, ISBN 3-8007-2796-X

Dieser Buchtitel ist auch als E-Book (PDF) erhältlich.

Fault Current Monitoring with the method of residual current measurement in electrical installations is a new method of preventive maintenance. Often suitable devices are applied to detect insulation faults early in order to prevent break-down times of the electrical installation due to insulation faults and hence reduce the cost-factors for business and industry. Monitoring with residual current monitor (RCM) according to IEC 62020, enables the detection of residual currents due to insulation faults in the early stages. In modern electrical power supply systems specially designed residual current monitors (RCM) are able to detect residual AC and DC currents. This means that it is now possible to measure insulation faults with fractions of direct voltage in AC systems as well as insulation faults in pure DC systems and to indicate and give warning when the critical value has been exceeded. For the information of the operator and user of electrical installations, residual current monitors (RCM) are often equipped with LED-displays, which indicate the respective residual current mostly in relation to the operate value. RCMs can be applied in addition to other known protective devices. This book describes applications and methods of measuring with residual current monitors (RCMs) in AC and DC systems. This book also contains many references to International Standards IEC 62020, IEC 61140, IEC 60364-4-41 and more.
This book is meant to support project designers of electrical installations; at the same time it can be used as a reference book on the subject of fault current monitoring through the method of residual current measurement. Because of the application descriptions, measurement techniques, standards, regulations and provisions it may provide useful information to constructors and operators of electrical installations.


  1. Introduction
  2. Introduction to Residual Current Monitoring – RCM 
  3. Protection of Electrical Installations and Equipment 
  4. Electrical Installations 
  5. Insulation Resistance 
  6. Effects of Shock Current on Humans 
  7. Residual Current Monitors (RCMs) 
  8. Residual Current Monitor (RCM) in Earthed Systems 
  9. RCM Monitoring in Earthed Systems with DC Fault Currents
  10. Application of Residual Current Monitor (RCM) in IT Systems
  11. Prospects 
  12. Standard Recommendations Regarding Residual Current Monitor (RCM)
List of abbreviations Key Words


Inhaltsverzeichnis als PDF (Quelle: VDE VERLAG)

[Translate to french:] [Translate to canadian english:] Protective Measures with Insulation Monitoring

Protective Measures with Insulation Monitoring

Application of Unearthed IT Power Systems in Industry, Mining, Railways, Marine/Oil and Electric/Rail Vehicles

Wolfgang Hofheinz

3. Edition 2006, ISBN 978-3-8007-2958-6

Dieser Buchtitel ist auch als E-Book (PDF) erhältlich.

The incremental application of unearthed electrical supply systems (IT systems), requires a careful selection of suitable protective measures, e. g. insulation monitoring devices (IMDs). The combination of IT systems with insulation monitoring is an innovative protective technique, with the great advantages of a more efficient operational safety and reliability, a better fire protection, accident prevention and more. The book gives a detailed description of the unearthed IT system and its application fields, in industry, mining, railway, marine/ oil and in electro vehicles. The various measuring techniques involving insulation monitoring devices are discussed, with an in-depth description of the respective international standards-series, IEC 60364, Low-voltage electrical installations; Part-1, Fundamental principles, assessment of general characteristics, definitions, Part 4-41, Protection for safety – Protection against electric shock; Part 6, Verification and IEC 60479, Effects of current on human beings and livestock – Part 1: General aspects, amongst others.
This book should be of assistance to people who plan and design electrical installations. It may also be used as a reference work on the subject of ”unearthed electrical supply“. The description of applications, measuring techniques, standards and regulations should be of interest to anybody who is involved with the construction and operation of unearthed electrical supply systems (IT systems).


  1. Introduction 2 Protection of Electrical Installations and Equipment
  2. Types of Distribution Systems According to IEC 60364-1
  3. Electrical Installations and Protective Measures According to IEC 60364-4-41
  4. Unearthed IT Systems
  5. Special Features and Advantages of IT Systems
  6. Applications of IT Systems
  7. Insulation Resistance
  8. Effects of Shock Current on Humans
  9. International Standards for Insulation Monitoring Devices
  10. Technical Implementation of Insulation Monitoring Devices and Earth Fault Monitors
  11. Response Values of Insulation Monitoring Devices (IMDs)
  12. Physics of the IT System
  13. Standard References to IT Systems
  14. Definitions for Insulation Monitoring
  15. Abbreviations
  16. List of Referenced IEC Standards
  17. Index